Siamese aka Spoken Thai is mainly spoken in the central region of Thailand. Such area includes Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand. The standard form of Siamese is called Standard Thai which is an official language of Thailand.
Common Features (after Tone Split)
- No distinction between r (ร) and l (ล). The former is pronounced like the latter; both are pronounced as /l/.
- No distinction among ʔj, j, and ɲ (อย, ย, ญ respectively). All are pronounced as /j/ (ย).
- Older generation may pronounce tr (ตร) as k (ก). Thus for these people, there is no distinction between tr and k.
- No distinction between kʰ (ข) and x (ฃ). Both are pronounced as kʰ (ข).
- A few may pronounce kw and kʰw (กว,ขว,คว) as f (ฝ, ฟ). Thus, no distinction among kw, kʰw, and f.
- All consonant clusters are simplified, e.g. kl (กล) becomes k (ก), except stop+w clusters, e.g. kw (กว).
- Some may pronounce s (ซ, ส, ศ, ษ) as /ɬ/.
- No distinction between -aj (ไ) and -aɯ (ใ). Both are pronounced as /aj/.
- Historic voiced stops became aspirated voiceless stops. E.g. *d > tʰ (ท).
- There is no distinction between tone 3 and 5, e.g. ข้า and ค่า are pronounced the same way, i.e. kʰâa. Both have falling tone.