Many English consonant sounds are hard for monolingual Thai speakers. These are those that do not exist in Thai. Most of these sounds are voiced (e.g. the z sound which is the voiced version of the s sound). To reduce the "Thai accent", or what is known in Thai as samniang thai, when speaking English, these Thai speakers have to learn how to pronounce these English consonant sounds.
Voiceless sounds (no buzzing sound in the throat)
- /θ/ as in thing. Many Thais will either substitute ต /t/ or ซ /s/ for this sound.
- /ʃ / as in fashion (/ˈfæʃən/). Many Thais will substitute ช /tɕʰ/ (sounds close to the ch in chin) for this sound.
- /ɡ/ as in God. Many Thais will confuse this sound with ก /k/ (unaspirated) as in skit.
- /dʒ/ as in Jason (/ˈdʒeɪsən/). Many Thais will substitute จ /tɕ/ for this sound.
- /v/ as in very. Many Thais who cannot produce this will use ว /w/ instead.
- /z/ as in zone. Many Thais will use the voiceless counterpart ซ /s/ instead.
- /ʒ/ as in vision (/ˈvɪʒən/). Many Thais substitute ช /tɕʰ/ for this sound.
- /ð/ as in this (/ðɪs/). Many Thais substitute ด /d/ for this sound.
- /ɹ/ as in rabbit. Many Thais will either substitute ร /r/ (trilled r like the Spanish r) or ล /l/ for this sound.
- /ɾ/ as in the American English pronunciation of better (/ˈbɛɾɚ/). Many Thais will either substitute /d/, /t/, or /r/ for this sound.
- /ʍ/ as in what. (Think of Stewie Griffin's cool whip) Many Thais will substitute /w/ for this sound. I do not count this as a difficult sound since many English speakers themselves substitute /w/ for this sound.
Brief summary of each pair (and a triplet) which many Thais do not make a distinction.
- voiceless th (thigh) and voiced th (thy)
- w (wane) and v (vain)
- sh (sheep) vs ch (cheap) vs "zh" (vision)
- r (row) vs l (low)
- s (sit) vs z (zit)
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Related post: American English vowels that do not exist in Thai.