Thursday, September 30, 2010

Thai "Paradigm"

ข้า (khâa) n., 1. slave, servant, 2. I/me

Case                                                     Meaning                       
Nominative*  ข้า                              the slave(subject)           
Genitive**       -ข้า, ของข้า               the slave's                    
Dative                ให้ข้า, เพื่อข้า             to the slave, for the slave
Accusative***  ข้า                           the slave(object)            
Ablative              จากข้า                     from the slave
Locative             ที่ข้า, ในข้า etc.      at the slave, in the slave
Vocative             ข้า                             O slave!

* subject when it's placed before verb
** possessor when succeeds noun
*** subject when it's placed after verb
ข้า ส่ง  แหวน    ข้า  ให้   เจ้า
  I        send       (a/the)ring  of mine  to/for      you
"I send my ring to you."

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Thai poem: tuacai ตัวใจ

Mawng nâatàang láeo khâa hèín tônmáai yài
Yùu khâangnai mii tuajai wîng lên yùu
Khâa dœn pai yàak cà càb phûakman duu
Tàe láeo nguu kâw àwk maa kàd man taai

"Looked through the window I see a big tree
Inside there're beings running and playing
I approach wanting to pet them
But then a snake appears and kill them all."


De-Indicization: phaasàá (ภาษา), pràthêit (ประเทศ)

De-Indicization is a process in which words of Indic origins are removed.

Word: phaasàá (ภาษา) "language"
Origin: Sanskrit bhāṣā "language"
Thai replacement: kham (คำ)

Ex: rao phûud khamThai.
"we speak Thai."

Word: pràthêit (ประเทศ) "country"
Origin: Sanskrit pradeśa country"
Thai replacement: mueang (เมือง)

Ex: thœ maa càak mueangLao.
"She's from Laos."

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Thai, Lao, Shan Important Prefixes III: nák-, phûu-, khon-

If you master this, you'll immensely expand your vocabulary. These prefixes are often used with verbs. So, it is important that you know as many verbs as possible. They're ones of the verb nominalizers.

Thai and Lao use nák- (นัก), phûu- (ผู้), and khon-(คน) to convert a verb to the verb in question's doer. Shan however only uses the last two prefixes.
In Thai and Lao, the diference between nák- and the other two is that nák- when combined with a verb is often used to indicate the doer's profession. In other words we can also tell that the doer does the action as a profession.
In Shan, phûu- unlike Thai and Lao is used pretty much like nák-, and khon-(kon-) is used more or less like the Thai and Lao khon-.

Formula: nák-, phûu-, or khon- + verb

Thai and Lao:
khìían "to write"
nákkhìían "writer" (profession)
phûukhìían, khonkhìían "writer" (general)
hian "to study"
nákhian "student"
phûukhian, khonhian "learner"

lîk "to write"
phûlîk "writer" (profession)
konlîk "writer"

NOTE: In many cases ALL of these prefixes are used interchangeably! Some people don't use nák- to indicate a profession.

Now can you covert read, walk, and run into reader, walker, and runner in these three languages?

Thai, Lao, Shan Important Prefixes II: khwaam- (ความ-)

If you master this, you'll immensely expand your vocabulary. The following prefixes are often used with adjectives or adverbs. So, it is important that you know as many adjectives and adverbs (stative verbs) as possible. It's one of the adjective nominalizers.

Thai and Lao use khwaam-(or khuam-), and Shan uses taang-.
Thai and Lao formula: khwaam- + adjective or adverb (stative verb)
Shan formula: taang- + adjective or adverb(stative verb)

sùk (สุข) "happy"
khwaamsùk (ความสุข) "happiness"
háwn "hot"
khuamháwn "heat" "hotness"
sûe "true"
taangsûe "truth"

Now you try! Can you now tell me how to say readiness, sweetness, and loneliness in these three languages? Well if you know how to say ready, sweet, and lonely then you won't have any problems!

Thai, Lao, Shan Important Prefixes I: kaan- การ-

If you master this, you'll immensely expand your vocabulary. The following prefixes are often used with verbs. So, it is important that you know as many verbs as possible. It's one of the verb nominalizers.

Thai and Lao use kaan- as the prefix (some people call it bound stem)

kaan- "process" "process of..."
formula: kaan- + verb

Let's use the verbs rian (เรียน) "to learn" and wâo (ເວົ້າ) "to speak" as examples.

ex I: kaanrian (การเรียน) "process of learning" "learning" n.
ex II: kaanwâo (ການເວົ້າ) "process of speaking" "speaking" n. "speech"

Shan prefix however is different, but the same formula can be used. The prefix is instead lâwng-

lâat "to talk"
Ex: lâwnglâat "process of talking" "talking" n.

Now it's your turn to nominalize your Tai verbs! Can you tell me how do you say colonization, sensation, and cancellation in these three languages? Well if you already know how to say colonize, sense, and cancel then you've got nothing to worry about!

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Vocabulary: Thaification

Has Scout Taylor been "Thaified"?
(September 25, 2009 - Photo by Kristian Dowling/Getty Images AsiaPac)

I've come across the word, "Thaification" n. on Wikipedia. A possible verbal form of this noun would be "Thaify" which means " to make or become Thai in outlook,attitude, form, etc." Example: Because Mr Anderson has been living in Thailand for 30 years, he decided to have his name Thaified.

Though this sounds artificial to me, I am in favor of using this word.

The suffix -ify(-ification) derives from French -ifier, from Latin -ificere, from linking vowel i + verb ficere, "make" or "do", combining form of facere.(wiktionary)  Ex: simplify("to make simple"), solidify("to make solid") etc.

I can see why one would add the suffix -ify to Thai- because "Thai" doesn't end with an n or an m(like the word americanize whose roots are from american- and -ize*.) Nor does it end with -ic(like anglicize*) etc.

If this word isn't legit, then does anybody know of one that translates the same meaning? I mean I could think of some possibilities: Thaicize, Thailandicize, Siamize etc. 

If "thaify" is indeed a word, its romance equivalents would be: thaïfier (French), taificar (Spanish and Portuguese), and thaificare(Italian).  

*note: -ize is an American spelling of -ise.